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Department of Agriculture Sarawak, 7 & 12-17th Floor, Menara Pelita,
Jln. Tun Abdul Rahman Yakub, Petra Jaya, 93050 Kuching, Sarawak
Tel. No.: 082-441000   Fax No.: 082-447821
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Department of Agriculture Sarawak, 7th, 12-14, 16-17th Floor, Menara Pelita, Jln. Tun Abdul Rahman Yakub, Petra Jaya, 93050 Kuching, Sarawak

Tel. No.:  082-441000  
Fax No.:  082-447639 (Director Office), 
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HONEY ORANGE

1. INTRODUCTION

Honey orange is one of the popular citrus species cultivated by smallholder farmers along the coastal and midland areas in Sarawak. There are, however, many variations in fruit type, with quite noticeable differences in fruit size and shape, thickness of rind and sweetness.

The fruit is well accepted as a dessert fruit and the market for it is good. Fruits are globose-obiate in shape and 5-10 cm wide, with skin shiny and greenish yellow. The skin is thin, and peeling easily. The segments, roughly 9-158 are easily separated and covered with a very thin, transparent skin. The flesh is juicy, pale orange in colour and sweet.

The nutrient composition of the edible portion is:-

COMPONENT
PER 100G EDIBLE PORTION
Energy
44.9 kcal
Water
88.6 g
Protein
1.1 g
Fat
0.3 g
Carbohydrate
9.1 g
Fibre
0.6 g
Ash
0.3 g
Calcium
18.0 mg
Phosphorus
17.0 mg
Iron
0.2 mg
Sodium
3.0 mg
Potassium
81.0 mg
Carotene
200 mg
Vitamin B1
0.08 mg
Vitamin
0.07 mg
Niacin
0.2 mg
Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
28.0 mg

Source : Fruits Technology, MOA Semenanjung, 2003

2. CROP REQUIREMENT

2.1 Climate

Honey orange are adapted to grow under all climatic conditions where frost is not a limiting factor. It can survive in areas with temperature between 23 - 38C, and annual rainfall of not more than 900mm.

2.2 Soil

Honey orange can be grown on a variety of soils ranging fron sandy to soils with a high clay content. However, the best soil is medium textured soil of alluvial origin, uniform, reasonably deep and fertile, having good internal drainage. Soil pH between 5.0 - 6.5.


3. CULTURAL PRACTICES

3.1 Propagation

The trees are prpagated by marcotting or budgrafting. Since honey orange is prone to diseases which are transmitted through planting materials, disease free planting material must be used. Marcotted/budgrafted plants flower and fruit about three years after planting.

3.2 Establishment

Square and rectangle planting system are recommended for planting distances are either 5.5m x 5.5m (330 trees/ha) or 5m x 5m (400 trees/ha). Planting holes of 0.5m diameter and depth are dug and into each is incorporated 5 kg dried chicken dung, 200g rock phosphate and 100g dolomite.

3.3 Pruning

Pruning aims at maintaining good vigour of the tree, obtaining desired shape of canopy and enhance production of fruits. For the first two years, formative pruning is done along with the removal of water shoots, dead, diseased and close branches. On fruiting, prining is pruning is normally performed after harvest, that is around September or October, to remove dead and diseased branches. Removal of the unwanted parts permit free circulation of air and allows good penetration of sunlight through the canopy. Open centre system of pruning is practised in honey orange.

3.4 Weeding

During the first two years of growth, weeds around the tree trunk should be controlled manually. Mulching is recommended to reduce weed growth around the tree base and also to conserve moisture. Weeds between rows can be controlled using contact herbicides or planting cover crops.

3.5 Manuring

The Department recommended the following manuring programmes:-

Year
Time of application
Type of fertiliser

Amount per plant/year (kg)

Rate per plant / Application (kg)
0
At planting
Rock phosphate
0.20
0.20
Dolomite
0.10
0.10
Chicken dung
5.00
5.00
1
Every 3 months
15:15:15
0.50
0.13
2
Every 3 months
15:15:15
1.50
0.38
3
Every 4 months
12:12:17:2 + TE
2.50
0.63
4
Every 4 months
12:12:17:2 + TE
4.00
1.33
5
Every 4 months
12:12:17:2 + TE
5.00
1.67
6 & above
Every 4 months
12:12:17:2 + TE
6.00
2.00

Source : Crop Production Manual Vol. 1, 1995, DOA Sarawak

In addition, organic manure at 5 - 10 kg/tree/year and dolomite at 200 g/tree/year is recommended.


4. PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT


4.1 Pests .

Some of the common insect pests of honey orange are as follows:-

Insect
Symptom
Control
Fruit borer
Larvae eat and thrive inside the fruit. Infected fruit will have a hole with some frass.
If possible wrap all fruits. Remove and bury all infected fruits.
Fruit fly
Larvae feed on the content of the fruit causing soft brown patches on skin. Fruits become rotten and fall off.
Destroy infested fruits. Bag the fruit. Bait sprays (Promar or chemical attractants). Spray with pyrethroid.
Leaf miner
Larvae mine beneath the epidermis and eat the tissue. Cause distortion and rolling of the leaves. Spray with dimethoate or malathion.
Scale insect
Insects attack most aerial parts causing leaves to drop, shoots to wither and fruits to become mottled and stop growing.
Remove and burn infested parts. Spray with either white oil, malathion or dimethoate.
Black citrus aphid
Feed on young shoots and leaves, resulting in distorted shoots, curly and cupped leaves.
Spray with either pyrethroid or dimethoate.
Citrus psyllid
Adults and nymphs suck sap from young shoots and leaves, introducing greening disease.
Regular spraying with pyrethroid , dimethoate or malathion.


4.2 Disease

Some of the common disease of honey orange are as follows:-

Disease
Symptoms
Control
Sooty mould
Black mycelia on leaf surface, stems and fruits after infestation of insect like aphids and scale insects.
Control of sucking insects reduces the problem. Spray with either with oil, pyrethroid or dimethoate.
Root and collar rot
Attack root and stem coller. Infected root will rot beginning with area above the ground and spread to the coller. Leaves turn yellow, drop and dieback.
Use disease resistant rootstock. Proper pruning and drainage. Use metalaxyl, cupric hydroxide and captan.
Greening disease
Sectorial and interveinal chlorosis. Leaves are stunted and curled inwards with leathery fell. Produce lopsided fruits with uneven ripening and red nose symptoms ( a band of green with orange or red)
Use disease free planting materials. Prune infected branches. Remove and burn all infected trees. Spray vector with malathion or dimethoate.
Scab
Attack leaves, branches and fruits. Form acorky tissue in infected area and blemishes on fruits.
Proper sanitation. Spray with copper oxychloride or captan.
Pink disease
Infects young branch and shoots; greencoloration of stem turns brown cover by pink mat of fingi, petioles of foliage along the branch also turn brown. The bark of older parts crack and become scaly; leaves drop, eventually branch dies.
Prune off the infected branch; spray with tridemorph (calaxin) at two-week intervals.


5. MATURITY AND HARVEST

5.1 Maturity

Vegetatively production (4 years after planting)

5.2 Yields

On the first year of production (4 years after planting) the tree produces about 7,000 kg/ha/yr of fruits and normally reached maximum production of about 22,000 kg/ha/yr on the sixth year of planting. Then, the yield declined due to greening disease problem.

Table 1 : Honey orange production by smallholders

Plot
Fresh fruit yield (kg/ha/yr)
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
Year 7
Year 8
Serian
6,875
14,961
18,613
20,165
19,657
Asajaya
7,153
15,962
21,045
20,154
18,965
Sadong Jaya
7,064
16,821
22,516
19,652
18,251
Purata
7,030.67
15,914.67
20,734.67
19,990.33
18,957.66

 

 

 

 

 

5.3 Seasonality

Honey orange is a non-seasonal fruit. It produces fruits throughout the year with two peak seasons, that is October - November and March - April period.

5.4 Harvesting Indices

The fruits can be harvested between 8-9 1/2 months after flower anthesis. In other words, the fruits are ready for harvest when they show a tinge of yellow and the skin becomes slightly shiny. Harvesting maybe staggered over one to two months.


6. POST HARVEST HANDLING AND STORAGE

6.1 Post Harvest Handling

Fruits are harvested manually by cutting the stalk using secateurs. The havested fruits are selected and graded to remove diseased and spoilt fruits. They are then packed into plastic containers or bamboo baskets.

6.2 Storage

Honey orange fruit should be distributed immediately after harvesting because storage life of honey orange is about 4 - 5 days in ambient temperature (25 - 35C). Storage at 10C with relative humidity 85 - 90%, fruits can be stored for 3 - 4 weeks.


7. ECONOMICS
  • At full maturity, yield obtained is between 18 to 22 t/ha/yr.
  • Total production costs per hectare for 8 years amount to RM 45, 144.00.
  • Gross revenue per hactare (at RM 1.50/kg fruit) was RM 123, 938.00.
  • Cumulative net income per hectare for 8 years was RM 78, 794.00.

 

Table 2 : Estimated cost and returns on per hectare basis (400 trees/ha)

Particulars
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
Year 7
Year 8
INCOME (RM/yr)                
Marketable fruits (price @ RM1.50/kg)
0
0
0
10,545
23,871
31,101
29,985
28,436
COST OF INPUTS (RM/yr)                
Rock phosphate
19
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Dolomite
11
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
Organic manure
500
500,750
750
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
15:15:15
220
440
0
0
0
0
0
0
12:12:17:2 + TE
0
0
800
1,600
1,600
1,600
1,600
1,600
Wedicides
310
310
31
310
31
310
310
310
Fungicide
300
300
300
375
375
375
500
750
Insecticide
50
100
100
120
200
200
300
500
Sub-total (RM)
1,410
1,672
2,282
3,177
3,507
3,507
3,732
4,182
LABOUR INPUTS (RM/yr)                
Clearing of vegetation
1,245
             
Field drainage
1,140
             
Farm road
240
             
Land preparation
450
             
Digging planting holes
1,320
             
Field planting/ shading
150
             
Fertiliser application
135
135
150
150
180
180
180
180
Spraying pesticides
180
360
750
945
945
945
945
945
Spraying weedicides
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
Pruning
30
60
60
150
150
150
150
150
Infra. maintenance
0
240
240
240
240
240
240
240
Harvesting
0
0
0
405
600
1,200
1,200
1,200
Total labour costs
5,220
1,125
1,530
2,220
2,445
3,045
3,045
3,045
@ RM 15/wmd ESTIMATED PROFIT                
Net income (RM) with own labour
-1,410
-1,672
-2,282
7,368
20,364
27,594
26,253
24,254
Net income (RM) with employed labour
-6,630
-2,797
-3,812
5,148
17,919
24,549
23,208
21,209
Cumulative profit (RM) with employed labour
-6,630
-9,427
-13,239
-8,091
9,828
34,377
57,585
78,794

Table 3 : Material, labour and yield data per ha honey orange farm (400 trees/ha)

Particulars
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
Year 7
Year 8
Yield (kg/ha/yr)      
7,030
15,914
20,734
19,990
18,957
Agro-inputs (kg/ha)                
Rock phosphate
80
             
Dolomite
40
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
Organic manure
2,000
2,000
3,000
3,000
3,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
15:15:15
200
600
           
12:12:17:2 + TE    
1,000
1,600
2,000
2,400
2,400
2,400
Weedicides (L/ha)
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
Fungicide (kg/ha)
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
6
Insecticide (L/ha)
3
4
5
10
12
16
16
16
Labour inputs (man/days/yr)                
Clearing of vegetation
83
             
Field drainage
76
             
Farm road
16
             
Land preparation
30
             
Digging planting holes
88
             
Field planting/shading
10
             
Fertiliser application
9
9
10
10
12
12
12
12
Spraying pesticides
12
24
50
63
63
63
63
63
Spraying weedicides
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
Pruning
2
4
4
10
10
10
10
10
Infra. maintenance  
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
Harvesting      
27
40
80
80
80
Total labour Inputs
348
75
102
148
163
203
203
203


 

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